Constitution and Bylaws
Constitution of United Chapters of Alpha Kappa Delta
ARTICLE I: Name
The name of this organization shall be United Chapters of Alpha Kappa Delta: International Sociology Honor Society, hereafter referred to as the Society.
ARTICLE II: Description and Purpose
Section 1. Description. This organization shall be a non-secret, democratic, international society of scholars dedicated to the ideal of Anthropon Katamanthanein Diakonesein or “to investigate humanity for the purpose of service.”
Section 2. Purpose. It shall be the purpose of this Society to promote excellence in scholarship in the study of sociology, research of social problems, and such other social and intellectual activities as will lead to improvement in the human condition.
Section 3. Tax-Exempt Status. The tax-exempt status of this Society shall be maintained by strict adherence to the following procedures:
a. No part of the income of this Society shall inure to the benefit of or be distributed to its members, trustees, officers or other persons, except that the Society shall be authorized and empowered to pay reasonable compensation for services rendered in performance of the educational and scientific purposes of the Society.
b. No part of the activities of this Society shall involve the carrying on of propaganda or otherwise attempting to influence legislation or intervene in any political campaign on behalf of any candidate for public office. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Constitution, this Society shall not carry on any other activities not permitted to be carried on by an organization exempt from Federal income tax under Section 501 (c) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 or by an organization, contributions to which are deductible under Section 160 (c) (2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (or corresponding provision of any future United States Internal Revenue Law).
ARTICLE III. Chapters
Section 1. Eligibility. A charter for a chapter of this Society may be established and maintained only in colleges and universities that are accredited by regional accrediting bodies as listed in Alpha Kappa Delta’s Bylaws and that offer a program or coursework leading to baccalaureate and/or graduate degrees in sociology (as defined by the standards of the American Sociological Association), provided that the following standards are maintained:
a. At least two instructors shall devote their full time to the teaching of sociology, and at least one shall agree to become a Voting Member of this Society. There shall be at least two PhDs in sociology in that department.
b. The department shall require that students complete at least ten (10) semester courses (or the equivalent of thirty (30) semester hours) in sociology to earn their degree. At least one course in methods of sociological research and at least one course in sociological theory containing significant sociological content shall be required. However, if a department fulfills these requirements by incorporating them within other courses in the department rather than as independent courses, the department may request an exemption from the course requirement by justifying and documenting how this requirement is fulfilled.
c. A chapter charter may be granted to a consortium of several participating departments of sociology from several academic institutions, but where no more than one is individually able to meet criteria for establishment of a chapter. Provided that collectively the participating qualified institutions meet criteria for a chapter, such a consortium may be granted a charter at the discretion of Council.
d. In the case of academic institutions outside the United States, equivalences for the above standards as well as for grading equivalents shall be determined by Council.
Section 2. Chapter Charter. Charters for new chapters shall be granted on a three- fourths affirmative vote of Council voting in a meeting or in an e-mail ballot distributed by the Executive Office.
Section 3. Revocation of Chapter Charters. An institution failing to maintain the above standards may have its chapter charter revoked by a two-thirds vote of Council at an annual meeting.
Section 4. Annual Reports. Each chapter shall make an annual report to the Society.
Section 5. Chapter Representatives. Each chapter of this Society shall have at least one chapter Representative who shall be both a faculty member of the host academic institution and a Voting Member of this Society.
ARTICLE IV: Membership
Section 1. Life Members. Life Members shall be those persons who have been initiated into membership by a chartered chapter of this Society and who have paid the initiation fee for membership.
Section 2. Voting Members. Voting Members shall be those Life Members who pay dues and fees as determined by Council.
Section 3. Eligibility. Eligibility for membership in this Society will be determined by the chapters according to criteria that meet or exceed the following minimum requirements or their equivalent:
a. For students classified as undergraduate students:
(1) Shall be enrolled as a major or minor in a sociology program or a program sociological in nature within an official program of the host institution.
(2) Shall be at least a junior (third year) by standards of the host institution.
(3) Shall rank in the top 35% of their class in general scholarship. If class rank is not readily available to a chapter representative, alternatives to class rank are available as stated in the AKD Bylaws. 
(4) Shall have maintained the equivalent of a 3.0 grade point average in sociology courses taken at the host institution prior to initiation.
(5) Shall have completed at least four courses (the equivalent of 12 semester hours) in sociology prior to initiation.
b. For students classified as graduate students (those officially admitted to graduate study in sociology at the host institution), the following specific requirements shall have been met prior to the time of initiation: completion of one-half year of graduate study in sociology (i.e., one semester, two quarters, or the equivalent academic unit) with a graduate grade point average of ‘B’ or better, and continued matriculation in a program of study leading toward a graduate degree in sociology at the host institution.
c. For faculty and professional staff members in an institution with a chartered chapter, formal conferral of the Ph.D. in sociology or employment as a sociologist are required prior to initiation.
Section 4. Nondiscrimination. Neither the United Chapters of Alpha Kappa Delta nor any of its affiliated chapters on any campus are in any way permitted to impose any other than purely academic performance criteria for selection of new members. All who meet approved academic criteria and adhere to the Code of Ethics for Members as stated in AKD’s Bylaws (Chapter 4, Section 1) are cordially and enthusiastically encouraged to join this academic honor society without regard to race, national origin, sex, physical or economic characteristics, nor with regard to any religious, ideological, or theoretical orientation.
Section 5. Resignation. A member desiring to resign from the Society shall submit such resignation in writing to the Executive Director.
Section 6. Reinstatement. Any member having resigned from membership may be reinstated upon application to the Executive Director and upon meeting such uniform terms and conditions as may be established by Council.
Section 7. Transfers. Members of any chapter may transfer affiliation from that chapter to another only by approval of the receiving chapter.
Section 8. Dues and Fees. The amount of any national fees or dues for any class of membership in the Society shall be established by Council.
ARTICLE V: Regions
Section 1. Regions. The Society shall be divided into regions. Regions shall be defined by the Council by a two-thirds vote.
Section 2. Regional Representative. A Regional Representative shall be elected from among the Chapter Representatives in each region.
a. The Nominating Committee shall nominate at least two Chapter Representatives from each region as candidates for election to a three-year term as Regional Representative. No Regional Representative shall serve more than two consecutive terms.
b. Regional Representatives shall be elected by a plurality vote of the voting members in their region voting by e-mail ballot distributed by the Executive Director.
c. Regional Representatives shall be elected to three-year terms according to a rotation system that provides for election of approximately one third of the Regional Representatives each year.
ARTICLE VI: Council
Section 1. Composition. Council shall be composed of the President, President-elect, Past-President, Vice-President, Secretary, Editor(s) of Sociological Inquiry, and one Regional Representative for each of the ten regions of the United States.
Section 2. Powers and Duties. The governing body of this Society shall be known as Council. Council is vested with full power to conduct all business of the Society. The duties of Council shall include: provide for and maintain office facilities for the Society; be responsible for all property, real and personal, owned or held by the Society and cause to be bonded all officers and employees entrusted with such property; cause the financial reports of the Society to be examined annually and at the time shall determine what level of examination is needed; adopt a budget and report budget policy and financial status to the members; review the reports of officers and committees and any recommendations or resolutions; and adopt rules and regulations for the conduct of the affairs of the Society.
Section 3. Management of Funds. Funds of this Society shall be managed in such a manner as to provide the most secure protection reasonably to be expected consistent with standard business practices. The Executive Office shall be responsible for fiscal management consistent with policies of Council.
Section 4. Meetings. Meetings of Council shall be held annually in connection with meetings of the American Sociological Association. Special meetings of the Council may be called by the President. Three days notice shall be given and business shall be limited to that which is stated in the call. Special meetings may be conducted via electronic media and actions may be taken via electronic ballot.
Section 5. Open Meetings. Meetings of the Council shall be open to all Voting Members of this Society who shall have the privilege of speaking on any topic properly under discussion. Only members of Council shall have a vote.
Section 6. Voting. Official actions and policies of this Society shall be set by a plurality vote of the Council at annual meetings or at special meetings or electronically except as otherwise specified in this Constitution and the Bylaws.
Section 7. Quorum. A majority of the voting members of Council shall constitute a quorum.
Section 8. Voting Other than in a Meeting
a. E-mail Ballot. Any questions may be submitted in writing to the Council, a committee, or other established body of the Society for determination in lieu of a meeting. A report of any action taken by e-mail ballot shall be verified and made a part of the minutes of the next meeting of that body.
b. Procedures. Specific procedures not in conflict with this Article for conducting any voting by e-mail shall be determined by the Council.
ARTICLE VII: Officers
Section 1. Officers. The officers of this Society shall be the President, President-elect, Past-President, Vice-President, Secretary, and Editor(s) of Sociological Inquiry.
Section 2. Eligibility. Officers of this Society shall be Voting Members at the time of their nomination and during their terms of office. No member may be a candidate for more than one office at a time. Candidates shall be proposed by the Nominating Committee.
Section 3. Terms. The terms of office for all officers of this Society, except Secretary and Editor(s) of Sociological Inquiry, shall be two years or until their successors are elected or appointed. The President-elect shall be elected in even-numbered years by e-mail ballot of the voting members. The Vice-President shall be elected in odd-numbered years by e-mail ballot of the voting members. The Editor(s) of Sociological Inquiry shall be appointed by Council in odd-numbered years. The Editor(s) of Sociological Inquiry shall be appointed for one four-year term. The Secretary shall be appointed by Council to three-year terms.
Section 4. Limitations on Service.
a. The President-elect shall serve a two-year term followed by a two-year term as President and a two-year term as Past-President. A former President shall not be eligible for election to any office until after a two-year term as Past-President.
b. The Vice-President shall serve no more than three consecutive two-year terms.
c. The Secretary shall normally serve no more than two consecutive three-year terms. However, upon a two-thirds vote of the Council, a Secretary may serve additional terms.
d. The Editor(s) of Sociological Inquiry shall serve a four-year term and shall not be eligible to serve consecutive terms.
e. A member having served more than half a term shall be deemed to have served a term.
Section 5. Vacancies. In the event that the office of President becomes vacant, the Vice President shall automatically become President for the unexpired term. In the event that the offices of Vice-President, Secretary, or Regional Representative become vacant, the President shall, after consulting with the Executive Committee, appoint a replacement for the unexpired term. In the event that the office of President-elect becomes vacant, the President shall initiate the process of nomination and election immediately. If the office of Past-President becomes vacant, it shall remain vacant. If in the event that the office of Sociological Inquiry Editor(s) becomes vacant, the President, upon consultation with the Executive Committee, shall appoint an Acting Editor(s) for the unexpired term.
Section 6. Resignation. Any officer may resign by submitting that resignation in writing to the Council. If any officer is unable or unwilling to perform the duties of office, he or she shall be deemed to have resigned, and the vacancy shall be filled as specified above.
Section 7. Removal of Officers. Any elected or appointed officer or representative may be removed for just cause. Sufficient cause for such removal may be violation of this Constitution and Bylaws or any lawful rule, practice, or procedure adopted by the Society or other conduct deemed by the Council to be prejudicial to the best interest of the Society. For removal for cause, it shall be necessary for the Council to hold a formal hearing. A statement of the charges shall be sent by registered mail to the last recorded address of the Officer/Representative, accompanied by notice of the time and place of the meeting at which the charges are to be considered. At least thirty days notice shall be given, and the Officer/Representative shall have the opportunity to appear in person or to be represented by counsel and to present any defense to such charges before action is taken. Council shall adopt such rules as may be necessary to assure due process to the Officer/Representative. The decision for removal shall be by a three-fourths vote of Council.
ARTICLE VIII: Committees
Section 1. Executive Committee. This Committee shall consist of the President, President-elect, Vice-President, Past-President, and Secretary. The President shall Chair the Executive Committee. The Executive Committee shall be empowered to act for this Society between meetings of Council; such actions shall be ratified by a plurality of Council at its next meeting in order to remain in force beyond that time.
Section 2. Standing Committees. Standing committees of the Society shall be established and defined by the Council. Unless otherwise specified by the Bylaws, the President shall appoint the Chair and members, and will also fill committee vacancies. The President shall be an ex-officio member of all standing committees unless the Council stipulates otherwise. Recommendations for the elimination or creation of standing committees will be submitted with their charge to the Executive Director and President for action by the Council. Definitions of all established standing committees will be included in the Bylaws.
ARTICLE IX: Dissolution
In the event of dissolution of this Society, the Officers shall, after making provision for the payment of all liabilities of the Society, dispose of the remaining assets exclusively to such organization or organizations which operate exclusively for educational or scientific purposes and shall at the time qualify as an organization under Section 501 (c) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (or corresponding provision of any future United States Internal Revenue Law).
ARTICLE X: Amendment of Constitution
Section 1. Proposal of Amendments. Amendments to this Constitution may be proposed in writing to the Executive Office by members of Council, the Executive Committee, or by a petition from at least three chapters acting jointly. The petition shall be endorsed by two-thirds of the Voting Members affiliated with each of the petitioning chapters.
Section 2. Council Action. Proposed amendments approved by a two-thirds vote of Council shall be submitted by e-mail ballot to the Chapter Representatives for adoption.
Section 3. Adoption. Adoptions of amendments to this Constitution shall require a three-fourths vote of those Chapter Representatives returning ballots by a date clearly specified on the e-mail ballot.
Section 4. Notification. The Executive Director shall notify chapters within thirty days of the return date for ballots whether an amendment has been adopted. Amendments shall take effect sixty (60) days after the chapters have been notified. Any amendment to this Constitution shall become the law of the chapters without further notice.
Bylaws of United Chapters of Alpha Kappa Delta
CHAPTER I: Duties of Officers, Regional Representatives, and Staff
Section 1. Responsibility of Officers. Officers shall perform the duties prescribed by the Constitution and Bylaws and by the parliamentary authority adopted by the Society.
Section 2. President. The President shall act as Chair of Council at annual meetings and perform all functions as chief executive officer of this Society consistent with the policies of Council. The President shall have sole power to form and to appoint members of special committees not otherwise specified in the Constitution and Bylaws. The President shall approve the hiring of certified public accountants and receive auditor’s reports and insure their review by Council.
Section 3. President-elect. The President-elect shall Chair the Planning Committee. The President-elect shall receive auditor’s reports and insure their review by the Planning Committee.
Section 4. Vice-President. The Vice-President shall assume the Chair of Council in the absence of the President and shall fill the unexpired term of the President when that office is vacant.
Section 5. Secretary. The Secretary shall serve as the interface between the Council and the Executive Office, and perform such duties as:
a. Represent the Council in the employment and supervision of the Executive Director and/or Finance Officer.
b. Serve a term of three calendar years, commencing on January 1, after appointment by the Council in August of the previous year. Reappointment for one additional three-year term is permitted. Appointments for additional terms are possible with the approval of two-thirds of Council.
c. Serve of the Executive Committee.
d. Serve on the Planning Committee.
Section 6. Editor(s) of Sociological Inquiry. Consistent with the policies of Council, the Editor(s) shall manage the scholarly and scientific affairs of Sociological Inquiry in accord with the highest standards of integrity and shall:
a. Provide complete records and otherwise fully cooperate with independent certified public accountants employed for an annual audit of the Society.
b. Provide ways and means through Sociological Inquiry to pursue the purposes of this Society, including encouragement of undergraduate research in sociology.
c. Provide for inclusion in Sociological Inquiry for every style and type of scholarly and scientific investigation consistent with the high standards appropriate to the official journal of this academic honor society.
d. Provide the Council a brief written annual summary report of activity during the preceding year and proposals for the ensuing year.
Section 7. Graduate Student Representative. The Graduate Student Representative is a nonvoting member of the Council who has been nominated by a current Chapter Representative or Council member and approved by the Council. The representative must be a Ph.D. student in good standing in a graduate program in Sociology and an active member of Alpha Kappa Delta at the time of nomination for the position. The individual will not have served in this capacity previously. The Graduate Student Representative will:
a. Attend the AKD Council meetings and other AKD events during the tenure of the appointment.
b. Mentor the incoming Graduate Student Representative.
c. Serve on a Council committee of his/her choice.
d. Serve the full term of the appointment (3 years, non-renewable).
Section 8. Regional Representative. Duties and functions of Regional Representatives shall be:
a. Attend meetings of Council and participate in the conduct of the business of this Society.
b. Maintain communication with Chapter Representatives in their regions, represent the region at Council, and interpret policies and actions of Council to the chapters.
c. Provide guidance and coordination to chapters that wish to develop student-oriented sociology research conferences.
Section 9. Executive Director. The Executive Director shall work under the supervision of the Secretary and perform such duties as:
a. Manage and supervise AKD employees.
b. Prepare, e-mail, and receive chapter annual report forms.
c. Prepare, email, and receive secret ballots for the conduct of the business of the Society consistent with the policies of Council.
d. Make regular and occasional e-mailings to officers and chapter representatives. Compile all results of mailings and e-mailings.
e. Process orders for initiation certificates, charter certificates, honor cords, banners, lapel buttons, and other commemorative items.
f. Shall participate in the activities of the Association of College Honor Societies (ACHS) and make reports to Council to insure a proper liaison between the two organizations.
g. Other duties as assigned by the Secretary.
Section 10. Finance Officer. The Finance Officer shall work under the supervision of the Secretary and perform such duties as:
a. Receive, disburse, invest, and otherwise properly manage and record all financial transactions for the Society consistent with policies of Council.
b. Provide complete records and otherwise fully cooperate with independent certified public accountants employed for examination of the financial status of the Society and submit auditor’s reports to the President and President-elect for study by Council and by the Planning Committee.
c. Other duties as assigned by the Secretary.
CHAPTER II: Council
Section I. General Duties of Council. Members of the Council are expected to participate in and contribute to the overall well being of Alpha Kappa Delta. Specific duties include but are not limited to:
a. Attend the regular meetings of the Council held in conjunction with the meetings of the American Sociological Association.
b. Participate in the business of AKD including on-line voting in various matters including reviewing and voting on charter applications.
c. Set dues and fees for Voting Membership.
d. Determine the privileges of membership in AKD.
e. Receive reports and proposed budgets from the Planning Committee, review the desirability of such recommendations, and vote to approve or reject them for implementation.
f. Receive reports of the Nominating Committee.
g. Serve on committees.
h. To carry out the responsibilities of the committee as assigned by the President.
CHAPTER III: Standing Committees
Section 1. Establishment of Standing Committees. Standing committees of the Society shall be established and defined by the Council. Unless otherwise specified, the President shall appoint the Chair and members, and will also fill committee vacancies. The President shall be an ex-officio member of all standing committees unless the Council stipulates otherwise. Recommendations for the elimination or creation of standing committees will be submitted with their charge to the Executive Director and President for action by the Council. Definitions of all established standing committees are below.
Section 2. Standing Committees. The Standing Committees of the Society shall be:
a. Nominating Committee. The President shall appoint three voting members, at least two of whom must be Council members and who are not current officers, to the Nominating Committee. These members shall select one of their number as Chair. The Committee shall nominate at least two candidates for each office to be filled by election or appointment and for each Regional Representative position to be filled. The Committee shall verify the willingness of candidates to be nominated and to serve if elected.
b. Elections Committee. The Elections Committee shall consist of two voting members, who shall be Council members. This Committee confirms all election results tabulated by the Executive Office.
c. Awards Committee. The Awards Committee shall consist of five voting members, at least four of whom shall be Council members. This Committee shall, from time to time, recommend to Council that outstanding individual contributions to the discipline and to the Society be recognized in an appropriate manner.
d. Undergraduate Scholarship Committee. The Undergraduate Scholarship Committee shall consist of three voting members, all of whom shall be Council members. This Committee shall, in accordance with Council policies, conduct the Undergraduate Paper Competition and make recommendations to Council.
e. Graduate Scholarship Committee. The Graduate Scholarship Committee shall consist of three voting members, all of whom shall be Council members. This committee shall, in accordance with Council policies, conduct the Graduate Paper Competition and make recommendations to Council.
f. Distinguished Lecture Committee. The Distinguished Lecture Committee shall consist of five voting members, all of whom shall be Council members. This Committee shall select the speaker for the Distinguished Lecture Series and make recommendations to Council.
g. Finance Committee. The Finance Committee shall consist of the President, President-Elect, and Secretary. This Committee shall manage the funds of the Society in such a manner as to provide the most secure protection reasonably to be expected consistent with standard business practices and make recommendations to Council.
h. Compliance Review Committee. The Compliance Review Committee shall consist of three voting members, all of whom shall be Council members. This committee shall review chapters to ensure compliance with the requirements for receiving and maintaining an AKD Charter as outlined in Article III, Section 1 of AKD’s Constitution.
Section 3. Special Committees. Special committees shall be established by the President. The Chair and members shall be appointed by the President.
Section 4. Vacancy. A vacancy in any committee shall be filled by the President.
CHAPTER IV: Chapters
Section 1. Chapter Designation. Chapters shall be known and designated by the name of the state, province, or other governmental unit being followed by chapters designated by the successive letters of the Greek alphabet. The initial chapter of this Society is Alpha of California.
Section 2. Insignia and Color. The official key or pin of this Society shall be the insignia used by all chapters. The official color shall be teal.
Section 3. Chapter Responsibility. It is the responsibility of chartered chapters to abide by the Constitution and Bylaws of the Society.
Section 3.1 Criteria for Establishing a Charter for a Chapter. A charter for a chapter of this Society may be established and maintained only in colleges and universities that are accredited by one of the following accrediting agencies: New England Association of Schools and Colleges – Commission on Institutions of Higher Education, Middle States Commission on Higher Education, Higher Learning Commission, Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities, Southern Association of Colleges and Schools – Commission on Colleges, or WASC Senior College and University Commission and that offer a program or coursework leading to baccalaureate and/or graduate degrees in sociology.
Section 3.2 Criteria for Maintaining an Active Charter for a Chapter. AKD will conduct periodic reviews to ensure that chapters comply with the compliance with this provision.
Section 3.5. Chapter Compliance with Federal Laws and Regulations. Chapters must comply with all Federal Laws and Regulations including those of the Internal Revenue Service. Failure to do so may result in a chapter being placed in inactive status. (Inactive chapters cannot induct new members or participate in other AKD activities). Once a chapter declared inactive for failure to comply with Federal Laws and Regulations is compliant with those regulations, the chapter will be removed from inactive status.
Section 3.7. Chapter Compliance with AKD’s Constitution. To maintain a charter for a chapter, chapters must comply with all requirements in Article VIII, Section I, of AKD’s Constitution. Failure to do so may result in a chapter being placed in inactive status by the Executive Director. (Inactive chapters cannot induct new members or participate in other AKD activities). Once a chapter declared inactive for failure to comply with this section of AKD’s Constitution is compliant with those regulations, the chapter will be removed from inactive status.
Section 4. Application Fee. Each proposed new chapter will pay a non-refundable fee with the submission of the charter application.
Section 5. Initiation Fees. Each chapter shall pay a sum set by Council to the United Chapters of Alpha Kappa Delta for each person initiated into Life Membership. This amount shall entitle the initiate to a certificate of membership and one-year subscription to Sociological Inquiry, thus making the initiate a Voting Member during the initial year of membership. A chapter may set additional modest fees for affiliation to be retained by the chapter for its own use.
Section 6. Duties of Chapter Representatives. Chapter Representatives shall:
a. Maintain liaison with the Secretary, vote on Constitutional amendments, and elect Regional Representatives.
b. Serve as Faculty Advisor to the local chapter.
c. Maintain liaison between the local chapter and Council through the Regional Representative.
Section 7. Chapter Cooperation. Chapters are encouraged to join cooperatively to develop programs that benefit their members.
Section 8. Minimum GPA for Student Members. If class rank is not readily available to a chapter representative, lieu of class rank, students shall have accumulated the equivalent of an overall grade point average of at least 3.3 by a four point scale where: A=4, B=3, C=2, D=1, F=0.
CHAPTER V: Code of Ethics for Members
Section 1. Code of Ethics for Members. “Alpha Kappa Delta endorses and expects its members to follow the American Sociological Association’s Code of Ethics that sets forth the principles and ethical standards that underlie sociologists’ professional responsibilities and conduct. These principles and standards should be used as guidelines when examining everyday professional activities. They constitute normative statements for sociologists and provide guidance on issues that sociologists may encounter in their professional work.”
CHAPTER VI: Amendment of Bylaws
Section 1. Procedure. Members of Council or the Executive Committee may propose amendments to these Bylaws. These Bylaws may be amended at any meeting by Council by a two-thirds vote, provided that the amendment has been submitted in writing to the Council. At least ten days notice shall be given. Any amendment to these Bylaws shall become the law of the chapters.
 If class rank is not readily available to a chapter representative, lieu of class rank, students shall have accumulated the equivalent of an overall grade point average of at least 3.3 by a four point scale where: A=4, B=3, C=2, D=1, F=0.